Original Research

Comparison of 24-hour versus random urine samples for determination and quantification of Bence Jones protein in a South African population

Ashandree Reddy, Nadine Rapiti, Verena Gounden
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine | Vol 10, No 1 | a1228 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ajlm.v10i1.1228 | © 2021 Ashandree Reddy, Nadine Rapiti, Verena Gounden | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 20 March 2020 | Published: 04 August 2021

About the author(s)

Ashandree Reddy, Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; and, National Health Laboratory Service, Durban, South Africa
Nadine Rapiti, National Health Laboratory Service, Durban, South Africa; and,Department of Haematology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Verena Gounden, Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; and, National Health Laboratory Service, Durban, South Africa


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Abstract

Background: The International Myeloma Working Group and College of American Pathologists recommend a 24-h urine collection to determine the Bence Jones protein (BJP) excretion level for monitoring treatment response in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). There are several issues related to sample collection and the method is prone to inaccuracy.

Objective: This study compared measured 24-h to random urine collections for the quantitation of BJP in a South African population.

Methods: Sixty-six patients with MM submitted random urine samples with their routine 24-h urine collection from April 2016 – March 2018. Measured 24-h urine BJP was compared to two estimated 24-h BJP excretions calculated as follows: Estimation 1 (E1): Estimated 24-h BJP (mg/24 h) = Urine BJP/Creatinine ratio (mg/mmol) × 10. Estimation 2 (E2): Estimated 24-h BJP (mg/24 h) = Urine BJP/Creatinine ratio (mg/mmol) × 15 mg/kg for women or × 20 mg/kg for men.

Results: Correlation of estimation equations E1 and E2 to the measured 24-h urine BJP was 0.893. Patients showed no difference in classification of treatment response using either the E1 or E2 estimation equations when compared to the measured 24-h urine BJP results.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the estimated 24-h BJP shows a high degree of correlation with the measured 24-h BJP and can likely be used to monitor treatment response in South African patients with MM.


Keywords

multiple myeloma; Bence Jones protein; random urine; estimated 24-h Bence Jones protein

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