Original Research

Formulation of phage cocktails and evaluation of their interaction with antibiotics in inhibiting carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in vitro in Kenya

Noutin F. Michodigni, Atunga Nyachieo, Juliah K. Akhwale, Gabriel Magoma, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Andrew N. Kimang’a
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine | Vol 11, No 1 | a1803 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ajlm.v11i1.1803 | © 2022 Noutin F. Michodigni, Atunga Nyachieo, Juliah K. Akhwale, Gabriel Magoma, Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Andrew N. Kimang’a | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 28 November 2021 | Published: 18 July 2022

About the author(s)

Noutin F. Michodigni, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Pan African University Institute for Basic Sciences Technology and Innovation (PAUSTI), Nairobi, Kenya; and, Department of Reproductive Health and Biology, Institute of Primate Research (IPR), Nairobi, Kenya
Atunga Nyachieo, Department of Reproductive Health and Biology, Institute of Primate Research (IPR) Nairobi, Kenya
Juliah K. Akhwale, Department of Zoology, School of Biological Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Nairobi, Kenya
Gabriel Magoma, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Pan African University Institute for Basic Sciences Technology and Innovation (PAUSTI), Nairobi, Kenya; and, Department of Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Nairobi, Kenya
Abdoul-Salam Ouédraogo, Department of Medical Microbiology Laboratories, Souro-Sanou Teaching Hospital, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
Andrew N. Kimang’a, Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT), Nairobi, Kenya


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Abstract

Background: The development of alternative control measures, such as phage therapy or adjunctive therapy, is urgently needed to manage the dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of formulated phage cocktails and their interaction with select antibiotics in inhibiting the growth of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae clinical isolate in vitro in Kenya.

Methods: The study was conducted from February 2021 to October 2021 at the Institute of Primate Research, Nairobi, Kenya. Phage cocktails were formulated based on the morphology and biological properties of precipitated Klebsiella phages. The efficacy of individual bacteriophages and phage cocktails as well as their combination with antibiotics were determined for their inhibitory activity on carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KP20).

Results: The precipitated bacteriophages were members of Myoviridae, Siphoviridae and Podoviridae. Regarding the evaluation of the phage cocktails, the absorbances at 600 nm of the bacterial culture treated with the two-phage cocktail (2φ MA) ranged from 0.173 to 0.246 at 16 h and 20 h whereas it peaked from 2.116 to 2.190 for the positive control. Moreover, the results of the adjunctive therapy showed that the optical density at 600 nm of the bacterial culture treated with 2φ MA was 0.186 at 24 h post-incubation time while it was 0.099 with the bacterial culture treated with imipenem in combination with 2φ MA.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the two-phage cocktail in combination with imipenem was able to synergistically delay the increase in carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae growth in vitro.


Keywords

phage cocktail; antibiotics; Klebsiella pneumoniae; carbapenemase; absorbances

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