Original Research

Immunohaematological reference values for HIV-negative healthy adults in Botswana

Madisa Mine, Sikhulile Moyo, Penny Stevens, Kurt Michael, Vladimir Novitsky, Kgomotso Makhaola, Aida Asmelash, S’khatele Molefhabangwe, Elias Woldegabriel, Gaseboloke Mothowaeng, Talkmore Maruta, Charity Kamhukamwe, Phibeon M. Mangwendeza, Molly Holmes-Pretorius, Isaac Mtoni, Modisa Motswaledi, Rosemary Musonda, Ndwapi Ndwapi, Joseph Makhema, Richard Marlink, Khumo Seipone, Tendani Gaolathe, Max Essex
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine | Vol 1, No 1 | a5 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ajlm.v1i1.5 | © 2011 Madisa Mine, Sikhulile Moyo, Penny Stevens, Kurt Michael, Vladimir Novitsky, Kgomotso Makhaola, Aida Asmelash, S’khatele Molefhabangwe, Elias Woldegabriel, Gaseboloke Mothowaeng, Talkmore Maruta, Charity Kamhukamwe, Phibeon M. Mangwendeza, Molly Holmes-Pretorius, Isaac Mtoni, Modisa Motswaledi, Rosemary Musonda, Ndwapi Ndwapi, Joseph Makhema, Richard Marlink, Khumo Seipone, Tendani Gaolathe, Max Essex | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 18 November 2011 | Published: 15 December 2011

About the author(s)

Madisa Mine, National Health Laboratory, Botswana
Sikhulile Moyo, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP), Botswana
Penny Stevens, Johns Hopkins University, United States
Kurt Michael, Johns Hopkins University, United States
Vladimir Novitsky, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP), Botswana
Kgomotso Makhaola, National Health Laboratory, Botswana
Aida Asmelash, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP), Botswana
S’khatele Molefhabangwe, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP), Botswana
Elias Woldegabriel, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP), Botswana
Gaseboloke Mothowaeng, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP), Botswana
Talkmore Maruta, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP), Botswana
Charity Kamhukamwe, National Health Laboratory, Botswana
Phibeon M. Mangwendeza, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP), Botswana
Molly Holmes-Pretorius, Harvard School of Public Health, United States
Isaac Mtoni, National Health Laboratory, Botswana
Modisa Motswaledi, Ministry of Health, Botswana
Rosemary Musonda, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP), Botswana
Ndwapi Ndwapi, Ministry of Health, Botswana
Joseph Makhema, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP), Botswana
Richard Marlink, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP), Botswana
Khumo Seipone, Ministry of Health, Botswana
Tendani Gaolathe, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP), Botswana
Max Essex, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership (BHP), Botswana


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Abstract

Background: Clinical laboratories in Botswana have relied entirely on the reference intervals for normal immunohaematological values provided by manufacturers’ kits and textbooks.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the means, medians, 2.5th and 97.5th percentile reference intervals, for normal immunohaematological values in healthy adults in Botswana.
Method: A total of 261 healthy participants comprising 126 men (48%) and 135 (52%) women were enrolled in the southern part of Botswana, and immunological and haematological laboratory parameters were measured.
Results: The mean age was 28.8 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 27.7–29.8) years, with a median of 27 years and a range 18–66 years. The mean haemoglobin level was significantly lower for women (12.4 g/dL; 95% CI 12.1% – 12.7%) than men (15.1 g/dL; 95% CI 14.9% – 15.3%). The women’s haemoglobin reference values (9.0 g/dL – 15.0 g/dL) levels were lower than observed in predominantly White populations (12.0 g/dL – 16.0 g/dL), but comparable with regional consensus reference intervals (9.5 g/dL – 15.8 g/dL) recently defined for East and Southern Africa.
Conclusion: The established values provide an important tool for patient management and could influence decisions on inclusion of participants and adverse events in clinical trials conducted locally.


Keywords

Botswana; HIV-negative; Immunohaematology; reference intervals; T-lymphocytes

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