Original Research

Candidaemia in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

Rita O. Oladele, Rashidi A. Bakare, Michael A. Petrou, Oyinlola O. Oduyebo, Malcolm Richardson
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine | Vol 3, No 1 | a89 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ajlm.v3i1.89 | © 2014 Rita O. Oladele, Rashidi A. Bakare, Michael A. Petrou, Oyinlola O. Oduyebo, Malcolm Richardson | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 28 November 2012 | Published: 06 August 2014

About the author(s)

Rita O. Oladele, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Nigeria
Rashidi A. Bakare, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Nigeria
Michael A. Petrou, Department of Microbiology, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, United Kingdom
Oyinlola O. Oduyebo, Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria
Malcolm Richardson, Mycology Reference Laboratory, University of Manchester, United Kingdom


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Abstract

Background: Candidaemia is a widely-studied and reviewed topic in the developed world; however, there is a dearth of information on nosocomial candidaemia in Nigeria, despite the increasing use of more invasive therapeutic modalities, immunosuppressive agents and increasing incidence of immunosuppression as a result of malignancies and HIV.

Objectives: To determine the hospital-based frequency of candidaemia in a tertiary hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Method: This was a prospective descriptive study which included 230 immunosuppressed patients. All isolates were identified to the species level using both conventional and automated methods. Thereafter, all Candida species isolated were tested for antifungal susceptibility using the broth microdilution method.

Results: Candidaemia occurred in 12 (5.21%) of the 230 study patients, with C. tropicalis accounting for 50% of the infections. Four patients (33.3%) presented with C. parapsilosis, one (8.3%) with C. albicans and one (8.3%) with a mixed infection of C. albicans and C. tropicalis. All 12 isolates were sensitive to fluconazole (minimal inhibitory concentration < 8 mg/mL). Univariate analysis revealed that old age, multiple surgeries and long-term hospitalisation were significant contributing factors for the occurrence of candidaemia. Eleven (91.7%) of the 12 patients with candidaemia had Candida colonisation of other sterile sites including the bladder, peritoneum and trachea. Furthermore, bivariate analysis revealed that mucositis (p = 0.019) and diarrhoea (p = 0.017) were significantly associated with an increased risk of candidaemia. The crude mortality rate of candidaemia was 91.7%.

Conclusion: This study highlights the significance of nosocomial candidaemia and the need for proactive laboratory investigation and clinical management of this life-threatening disease.


Keywords

candidaemia; Ibadan; frequency; hospitalised patients

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