Original Research

Serologic evidence of seasonal influenza A and B in HIV patients on combined antiretroviral therapy in Lagos, Nigeria

AbdulAzeez A. Anjorin, Barakat A. Adepoju
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine | Vol 9, No 1 | a1048 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ajlm.v9i1.1048 | © 2020 AbdulAzeez A. Anjorin, Barakat A. Adepoju | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 22 May 2019 | Published: 21 December 2020

About the author(s)

AbdulAzeez A. Anjorin, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, Nigeria
Barakat A. Adepoju, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, Nigeria


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Abstract

Background: Influenza and HIV are endemic in Nigeria but there is no epidemiological data on the co-infection of influenza A and B among HIV patients.

Objective: We investigated seasonal influenza A and B, and co-infection among HIV patients on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Lagos, Nigeria.

Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study, clear sera collected from 174 HIV-positive patients between August and September 2018 were analysed for immunoglobulin M-specific antibodies to seasonal influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2, and influenza B by enzyme immunoassay.

Results: A total of 39.7% (69/174) of HIV patients were seropositive for influenza A or B viruses with 84.1% (58/69) being positive for influenza A, 13.04% (9/69) seropositive for both influenza A and B, and only 2.9% (2/69) positive for influenza B mono-infection. Median age was 44 (mean 45, mode 40, range 18–74) years. The 41–50 years age group had the highest seroprevalence (39.1%; 27/69). Seropositivity was highest among women (65.2%; 45/69). A total of 88.4% (61/69) of HIV patients seropositive for influenza A or B were on fixed dose cART, while 73.9% (51/69) were virologically suppressed. Furthermore, 27.5% (19/69) were immunocompromised, of which 21.1% (4/19) were severely immunosuppressed (cluster of differentiation 4 < 200 cells/mm>3).

Conclusion: Influenza A and B was prevalent among HIV patients on cART, which may predispose them to life-threatening complications. We recommend strong advocacy on the need to reduce the risk of exposure to influenza and for the provision of an influenza vaccine in Nigeria.


Keywords

influenza A; influenza B; HIV co-infection; seroprevalence; Lagos

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