Original Research

Effects of TNF-α and IL-10-819 T>C single nucleotide polymorphisms on urogenital schistosomiasis in preschool children in Zimbabwe

Amos Marume, Theresa Chimponda, Arthur Vengesai, Caroline Mushayi, Jaclyn Mann, Takafira Mduluza
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine | Vol 10, No 1 | a1138 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ajlm.v10i1.1138 | © 2021 Amos Marume, Theresa Chimponda, Arthur Vengesai, Caroline Mushayi, Jaclyn Mann, Takafira Mduluza | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 22 November 2019 | Published: 29 April 2021

About the author(s)

Amos Marume, Department of Infection Prevention and Control, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; and, Paraclinical Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
Theresa Chimponda, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
Arthur Vengesai, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
Caroline Mushayi, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
Jaclyn Mann, Department of Infection Prevention and Control, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Takafira Mduluza, Department of Infection Prevention and Control, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; and, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe


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Abstract

Background: Knowledge gaps exist between host genetic factors and susceptibility to schistosomiasis.

Objective: This study determined cytokine levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α (rs1800629) and interleukin (IL)-10 (rs1800871) and their possible impact on susceptibility to schistosomiasis in preschool-age children in the Madziva area of Shamva district, Mashonaland Central province, Zimbabwe.

Methods: Urogenital schistosomiasis was diagnosed using the urine filtration method, while a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for cytokine level determination. The survey was done in August 2015 and reinfection levels post treatment were assessed at 3, 6 and 12 months. Amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction with visualisation on 2% agarose gel electrophoresis was used for genotyping.

Results: Schistosomiasis prevalence was found to be 10.5% (59/563). Reinfections were detected in only six children at 3 months and only one was reinfected at 12 months. There were no significant differences in TNF-α-308 G/A allele or genotype frequencies between the Schistosoma haematobium infected participants (p = 0.360) and uninfected participants (p = 0.279). However, no children with the IL-10-819 TT genotype had schistosomiasis. The TNF-α GG genotype corresponded with significantly lower TNF-α levels when compared with the GA or AA genotypes (p < 0.001), and TNF-α levels were significantly lower in infected children compared to uninfected children (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Higher TNF-α levels and lower IL-10 levels are potentially protective against schistosomiasis infection. The IL-10-819 TT genotype is potentially protective against infection through its association with lower IL-10 levels.


Keywords

Schistosoma haematobium; polymorphisms; cytokines; susceptibility; protective immunity

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