Original Research

Prevalence of alpha and beta haemolysin among blood group O donors in Bamenda, Cameroon

Victor N. Fondoh, Nobert Ndzenjempuh, Tamunjoh Stella, Richard M. Fondoh, Charles N. Awasom, Rebecca Enow-Tanjong, Egbe P. Egbengu, Robert Leke, Njini F.N. Rose, Denis Nsame
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine | Vol 11, No 1 | a1432 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ajlm.v11i1.1432 | © 2022 Victor N. Fondoh | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 25 October 2020 | Published: 19 April 2022

About the author(s)

Victor N. Fondoh, Bamenda Regional Hospital Laboratory, Regional Hospital Bamenda, Cameroon; and, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda, Cameroon; and, Department of Health Economics Policy and Management, Faculty of Business Management, Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda, Cameroon
Nobert Ndzenjempuh, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda, Cameroon
Tamunjoh Stella, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda, Cameroon
Richard M. Fondoh, North-West Regional Fund for Health Promotion, Bamenda, Cameroon
Charles N. Awasom, Department of Anatomy, School of Health and Medical Science, Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda, Cameroon
Rebecca Enow-Tanjong, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda, Cameroon
Egbe P. Egbengu, Department of Medicine and Surgery, School of Health and Medical Science, Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda, Cameroon
Robert Leke, Department of Medicine and Surgery, School of Health and Medical Science, Catholic University of Cameroon, Bamenda, Cameroon
Njini F.N. Rose, Regional Hospital Bamenda, Bamenda, Cameroon
Denis Nsame, Regional Hospital Bamenda, Bamenda, Cameroon


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Abstract

Background: The occurrence of high titres of alpha (anti-A) and beta (anti-B) haemolysin immunoglobulin G antibodies in blood causes haemolysis during blood transfusion from a group O donor, commonly and inappropriately known as the ‘universal blood donor’, to a group A, B or AB recipient. Surprisingly, haemolysin testing is not routinely done during blood transfusion services in Bamenda, Cameroon.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of haemolysin among blood group ‘O’ donors at the Regional Hospital Bamenda Blood Bank, Bamenda, Cameroon.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out between June and September 2020 at the Regional Hospital Bamenda Blood Bank, Bamenda, Cameroon. Blood group O donors who were free from transfusion-transmissible infections were selected systematically and serially and their serum tested for the presence of haemolysin. Haemolysin titres were determined, and titres ≥ 8 were considered significant. The associations between haemolysin prevalence and age group, gender and Rhesus D blood group were determined using the chi-square test.

Results: The prevalence of haemolysin among the 480 study participants was 52.1% and significant haemolysin titres were detected in 18.5%. There was no association between haemolysin and gender, age group or the Rhesus D blood group.

Conclusion: The prevalence of significant titres of haemolysin among participants in this study was high. There is the need to test for haemolysin in blood group O donors to prevent the potential risk to blood group A, B, and AB recipients and to provide safer blood for transfusion.


Keywords

prevalence; haemolysin; immunoglobulin; blood group O; donors; Bamenda; Cameroon

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