Original Research

Role of CTX-M-15 gene in spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among immunocompetent patients in Ghana

Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Gloria D. Tawiah-Abrokwa, Enid Owusu, Francisca Duah, Daniel Oduro-Mensah, Paul Kwao, Bako Evariste, Appiah-Korang Labi
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine | Vol 12, No 1 | a2135 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ajlm.v12i1.2135 | © 2023 Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Gloria D. Tawiah-Abrokwa, Enid Owusu, Francisca Duah, Daniel Oduro-Mensah, Paul Kwao, Bako Evariste, Appiah-Korang Labi | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 29 November 2022 | Published: 20 November 2023

About the author(s)

Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Gloria D. Tawiah-Abrokwa, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Enid Owusu, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Francisca Duah, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Daniel Oduro-Mensah, Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Paul Kwao, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana
Bako Evariste, Tenkodogo University Center, Thomas Sankara University, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, Benin
Appiah-Korang Labi, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana

Abstract

Background: Patients with faecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacterales serve as reservoirs and sources of dissemination and infection.

Objective: This report examined immunocompetent patients for faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales in a district care hospital setting in Ghana.

Methods: Between March 2019 and May 2020, cross-sectional sampling was performed to enrol patients and conduct questionnaire-structured interviews for factors that predispose patients to ESBL faecal carriage. Faecal samples from study patients were quantified for ESBL-producing Enterobacterales. The ESBL genes were characterised by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.

Results: The overall proportion of ESBL faecal carriage was 35.5% (n = 38/107). The blaCTX-M gene, mostly CTX-M-15, was detected in 89.5% (n = 34/38) of the ESBL-producing isolates. The other ESBL types included blaSHV (n = 3) and blaOXA (n = 1). The CTX-M-15-positive isolates, when present in a faecal sample compared to the non-ESBL-CTX-M-15 isolates, constituted the predominant faecal Enterobacterales, with significantly higher colony counts than all other enterobacteria in that sample. In multivariate regression, independent risk factors for faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales were hospitalisation in the past year, infections since admission, use of antibiotics in the past 6 weeks, and admission from another hospital.

Conclusion: The study found that CTX-M-15-producing isolates were the predominant faecal Enterobacterales, and that further investigations are needed to determine the reasons behind this dominance.

What this study adds: The CTX-M-15-producing isolates dominance in this study shows the misuse and abuse of antibiotics in an African medical facility and indicates the potential role of immunity in controlling ESBL spread, which is to be investigated further.


Keywords

extended-spectrum beta-lactamases; prevalence; inpatient; faecal carriage; Enterobacterales; Ghana

Sustainable Development Goal

Goal 3: Good health and well-being

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